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^38 



MANUAL 

OF 

DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/manualofdairycatOOgowe 



MANUAL 

OF 

DAIRY CATTLE 
BREEDING 



JOHN W. COWEN, Ph.D. 

Maine Agricultural Experiment Station 



BALTIMORE 

THE WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANY 
1925 



Copyright 1925 
THE WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANY 

/ 1 S 01 

Made in United States of America 

PUBLISHED SEPTEMBER, 1925 



COMPOSED AND PRINTED AT THE 

WAVERLY PRESS 

FOR 

The Williams & Wilkins Company 
Baltimore, Md., U. S. A. 



CONTENTS 

Preface 7 

Chapter I 

Origin and Early History of Breeds of Dairy Cattle 9 

Chapter II 

Development of Registration as a Means of Isolating and Per- 
petuating Breeds 11 

Chapter III 
Breeds of Dairy Cattle and Mode of Recording in Each Breed 12 

Chapter IV 

Development of Productivity Registers 30 

Chapter V 
Tracing a Pedigree 32 

Chapter VI 
Organizing a Good Sales Pedigree 41 

Chapter VII 
Characteristics of Pedigrees in the Different Breeds, Inbreeding. 43 

Chapter VIII 
Characteristics of Pedigrees for the Different Breeds, Kinship.. 50 

Chapter IX 

Characteristics of Pedigrees for the Different Breeds. Homozy- 
gosis Resulting from Different Types of Matings 55 

Chapter X 
Characteristics of Pedigrees, Famous Ancestors 66 

Chapter XI 
Conformation in Relation to Milk Yield 73 

Chapter XII 

Age of the Cow in Relation to Milk Yield 77 

5 



6 CONTENTS 

Chapter XIII 

Age of the Cow in Relation to the Butter-fat Percentage 88 

Chapter XIV 

Mode of Secretion of Milk in the Udder 92 

Chapter XV 

Permanence of Milk Yield and Butter-fat Percentage 93 

Chapter XVI 

Inheritance of Milk Yield from Dam to Daughter 99 

Chapter XVII 

Influence of the Grandparents on the Granddaughters' Milk 
Yield 101 

Chapter XVIII 

The Inheritance of Milk Yield and Butter-fat Percentage in 
Crosses of Animals Differing Widely in the Amounts of These 
Variables „ 103 

Chapter XIX 

The Chromosome Mechanism of Heredity in Relation to Dairy 
Cattle Inheritance 105 

Bibliography of Cattle Inheritance 107 



PREFACE 

This manual is prepared as a laboratory text for students pri- 
marily interested in dairy cattle breeding. A good training is 
desirable in the elements of biology including courses in pure gen- 
etics, cytology, and the mathematics of statistics before commencing 
this work in the agricultural college. Desirable students need not 
be excluded from the course, however, if they lack courses in these 
subjects. It will simply mean that such students will have to do 
outside reading in such texts as T. H. Morgan, 1919, Physical 
Basis of Heredity, Lippincott Company, Philadelphia; T. H. Morgan, 
A. H. Sturtevant, H. J. Muller, and C. A. Bridges, 1915, The 
Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity, Henry Holt and Company, 
New York; Babcock and Clauson, 1918, Genetics in Relation to 
Agriculture, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York; G. Udny 
Yule, 1919, fifth edition, An Introduction to the Theory of Statistics, 
Lippincott Company, Philadelphia. 

The basis for the lecture course to accompany the laboratory 
course is found in the text, Milk Secretion, 1924 (Williams and Wil- 
kins Company, Baltimore). The citations to reading in this text are 
indicated by the abbreviations M . S. The citations to other sources 
are indicated by rather complete references. No effort is made to 
give references to general genetic or physiological literature as it is 
believed that these courses are better given in the pure science sec- 
tions of the University than in the Agricultural College proper. 

It is fairly obvious in a course of this kind, necessarily limited for 
time, that the work had better be confined in general to one breed 
of dairy cattle. This breed may be changed from year to year 
indicating to the student that the results for, the different breeds 
correspond quite closely in the principles involved. By following 
through this outline with dairy cattle the student will obtain an 
excellent foundation on which to study similar problems in other 
types of livestock, horses, sheep, swine, etc. A rather complete 
list of papers relating to cattle breeding is found in the bibliography. 



CHAPTER I 
Origin and Early History of Breeds of Dairy Cattle 

It is important in any consideration of a breeding problem to have 
a firm grounding in the mode by which the breed originated. A 
review of the early history of the dairy breeds will reveal : 

1. Origin of the parental stock. 

2. Probable inbreeding which took place. 

3. Chances for homozygous and heterozygous stock. 

4. Breeding measures adopted which would be likely to influence 
color, type, milk yield, and butter-fat percentage. 

5. Other points of importance to breeding problem. 

Review history of formative period of the different breeds from 
this point of view. The opportunity is a good one for bringing out 
the judgment of the student in making a critical unbiassed review. 

REFERENCES 

Numerous sources of information will suggest themselves to the instructor. 
Cole, L. J., and Jones, L. V. H. 1920. The Occurrence of Red Calves in Black 

Breeds of Cattle, Wisconsin Bulletin 313, for critical review of the Hol- 

stein-Friesian breed's origin. A review of this is given in Chapter I 

of M. S. 
Youatt, William. Stock Raising Manual, brings out important points 

concerning the early breeder's ideals. 
Wallace, Robeet. 1907. Farm Live Stock of Great Britain, Edinburgh, gives 

a brief review of all the breed histories in so far as the British Isles 

influenced them. 
Wilson, James. The Evolution of British Cattle and the Fashioning of the 

Breeds. 
Sanders, J. 1887. Breeds of Live Stock and the Principles of Heredity, 

Chicago. 

The early herd books of the breed associations and the informa- 
tion which may be obtained from these associations furnish other 
sources of data for the study of breed origin. Credit is to be given 
for all other sources of information which you are able to find. 
Write a 500-word paper on this subject for the breed chosen using 
as your guide the five points indicated above. Have the reference 

9 



10 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

to the original literature in clear standard form, name of author, 
date of publication, the title of article or book, place of publication, 
volume number, and pages. It might be advisable to have different 
students take different breeds. The reading and discussion of the 
best papers furnishes an excellent means of fixing this information. 



CHAPTER II 

Development of Registration as a Means of Isolating 
and Perpetuating Breeds 

A large proportion of the data collected for Chapter I can also be 
used for this chapter. The problem should be considered from 
the viewpoint of how registration has influenced the breeding 
problems of dairy cattle. Data should be included to show when 
the breed organization took place; what breeds, if any, were used to 
form the modern breed; under what conditions cattle were ad- 
mitted to registry; etc. Define the difference between registered, 
purebred, grade, and scrub members of the breed. Write a 500- 
word paper on one of the dairy breeds. The best papers may be 
read before the class and discussed in the laboratory period. 

REFERENCES 

Besides those indicated in chapter (I) we might add Col. Le Oonteur, Col. 
O. P. Cornu, and Thornton, 1845, 1851, 1855, 1859, some references in Journal 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, volumes V, XII, XVII, XX. 
Hottsman, W. Cattle Breeds and Management, Vinton & Co., London. 

The early breed histories as contained in the herd books and such modern 
standard tests as: 

Eckles, C. H., and Wakren, G. F. 1916. Dairy Farming, Macmillan & Co. 
Plumb, Charles Sumner. Rev. ed., 1920. Types and Breeds of Farm Ani- 
mals, Ginn & Co. 

The student in writing his paper should make an effort to look up 
and tabulate a complete literature list. 



11 



CHAPTER III 

Breeds of Dairy Cattle and Mode of Recording in 
Each Breed 

List the breeds normally classified as dairy cattle with the names 
and addresses of their secretaries and the offices where the regis- 
tration takes place. Visit one of these offices and see how the 
business of registration is carried on, if this can be done. Make 
out proper registration papers for a calf and an adult bull or cow. 
Make out proper transfer papers. 

Review conditions for registration both past and present. How 
are imported cows registered? Write a 250-word paper comparing 
methods of registration in the different breeds. Answers to ques- 
tions like the following should be noted: How do unregistered ani- 
mals on the Jersey Isle differ from those in this country and what 
are the differences in mode of registration? 

REFERENCE 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bulletin 106, Breeds of Dairy Cattle. 

Blanks for registration and transfer of cattle are found in the text, 
pages 14-29. The history of changes in registration may be ob- 
tained from the herd book or from the breed associations. Point out 
any differences in the form of registration of transfer as adopted by 
the different breeds. 



12 



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IMPORTANT: The certificate of comparison (at bottom of sheet) must be 
dated and signed by someone who has compared this sketch with the animal 
to be recorded and knows it is correct. The certificate of registry CAN- 
NOT be issued until this has been done. All signatures must be made with 
ink. 



BOTH OUTLINES TO BE FINISHED WITH INK 



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CERTIFICATE OF COMPARISON 

I have compared these diagrams with the animal to be recorded, and find them 
to be correct. 



Signature Date. 

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IMPORTANT: The certificate of comparison (at bottom of sheet) must be 
dated and signed by someone who has compared this sketch with the animal 
to be recorded and knows it is correct. The certificate of registry CAN- 
NOT be issued until this has been done. All signatures must be made with 
ink. 



BOTH OUTLINES TO BE FINISHED WITH INK 



T3 
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CERTIFICATE OF COMPARISON 

I have compared these diagrams with the animal to be recorded, and find them 
to be correct. 



Signature Date. 

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20 



CHAPTER IV 
Development of Productivity Registers 

The basis of any constructive breeding program consists of a 
register showing the exact breeding of an animal and a register 
showing the productivity of the animal, its ancestors, and offspring. 
Of the published data, the advanced registry records of the dif- 
ferent breed associations are the chief sources of information here 
in the United States. The cow testing associations also obtain 
records but these are not in an easily available form for inheritance 
work. In Scotland, Ayrshire records are recorded by the Cattle 
Milk Records Committee. In Denmark records similar to our cow 
testing records are obtained. 

Each student may be assigned a breed of dairy cattle in the 
United States to look up its advanced registry system, how it com- 
menced, by whom it was commenced, and what the requirements 
for entry were. What changes have been made in these require- 
ments since the beginning of the recording of these productivity 
records? In view of the history of the advanced registries write a 
paper on the suitability of the records for inheritance work and for 
the use of the breeder as a guide to his breeding operations. Note 
especially the possible influence of the requirement for entry, see 
M. S., chapter VIII. 

Let the student hunt up his own reference material in such sources 
as the Experiment Station Record. 

Supplementary exercise: Examine the rules of the different cow 
testing associations in this country and abroad for their adequacy 
in furnishing facts on which to base the following : 

1. Selecting cattle for breeding. 

2. Ease of pedigreeing animals. 

3. When the pedigrees of an animal are made, the ease with which 
the production records of each ancestor may be added to the pedi- 
gree. 

4. Determining a cow's own production and her probable subse- 
quent production. See also M. S., Chapter VI. 

30 



DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY REGISTERS 31 

A lecture on the use of the herd book and advanced register in 
tracing a pedigree and searching out the records of different animals 
may well be included. It is suggested that this be a demonstration 
with a chance for the greatest freedom in asking questions by the 
class. 



CHAPTER V 
Tracing a Pedigree 

At the bottom of most practical breeding operations is the pedi - 
gree. The successful breeder must know how to trace a pedigree 
correctly and to interpret it properly after it is traced. If the pedi- 
gree is so important to the breeder it is equally important to the 
student of cattle breeding. 

In view of what is to follow the whole class should trace pedigrees 
of animals in the same breed. It is suggested that each student 
trace for four complete generations the pedigrees of four animals, 
two bulls and two cows. One bull and one cow to be noted Ad- 
vanced Registry animals, the other bull and cow to be chosen en- 
tirely at random 1 but to have neither Advanced Registry offspring 
nor records of their own. 

Each student is furnished with pedigree blanks in which he will 
fill in the pedigrees of the animals chosen. These are found on 

1 A good way to choose the animals at random is to place in a hat 10 slips of 
paper numbered from to 9 and have the student draw from the hat. Suppose 
the student's first draw is 1, or the number in the 100,000 column would be 1. 
The student's second draw gives the 10,000 number, say the draw is 5; the third 
the 1000 number, say, is 9; the fourth, the 100, let us say is 2: the fifth, the tens, 
is 3; the sixth, the units, is 4. The number chosen is, consequently, 159,234, 
which would be the number of the animal that the student is to pedigree, pro- 
viding of course it has no Advanced Registry record. The slip is returned to 
the hat at each draw so there are always 10 slips from which to draw. In case 
the animal drawn has Advanced Registry records choose the next nearest ani- 
mal which has no such records. The bulls and cows that a given student 
pedigrees should if possible be chosen from the same volume of the herd book 
so as to eliminate the influence of more cows than bulls being recorded. Other- 
wise the animals pedigreed will be many years apart in dates of birth and 
consequently the younger one will have less chance of having the same ances- 
tors in a given generation than the animal of early birth. It is also important 
to have the random sample numbers approximately the same as those of the 
Advanced Registry. This may be done by allowing the two Advanced Regis- 
try animals already pedigreed to determine the first three places and drawing 
as above for the hundreds, tens, and units. 

32 



TRACING A PEDIGREE . 33 

pages 35-40. A specimen pedigree of King Hengerveld Aaggie 
Fayne 56635, a Holstein-Friesian bull of merit is given on page 
34. While the pedigrees indicated are for four generations, the 
system may be used for any number of generations by using 
the "Sheet Number" at the upper left and the "Go to sheet" at 
right of the pedigree blanks. 



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40 



CHAPTER VI 

Organizing a Good Sales Pedigree 

While the construction of a good sales pedigree does not belong 
primarily to a course devoted chiefly to a study of breeding principles, 
the fact that success in a commercial sense is so largely dependent on 
the legitimate exploitation of all surplus breeding stock justifies the 
inclusion of this subject. Furthermore, the purchaser's proper 
evaluation of such a pedigree for the breeding worth of the animal 
in question requires a knowledge of how such pedigrees are con- 
structed and the weight to be attached to the information given in 
them. In this sense the construction of such a pedigree furnishes 
a good ground work, to direct the student's attention to specific 
problems of breeding. 

The first step in commercial pedigree work is to trace the pedigree 
of the animal in the manner shown in the previous exercise. The 
next step is to add the records for production. The following in- 
formation should be given for each bull. 

A. Number of record daughters. 

B. Citation of records of some of the daughters featuring those which are 

best. 

C. Number of proven sons (sons who in turn have record daughters). 

D. Citation of records of some of the best of the proven sons' record 

daughters. 

E. Number of proven granddaughters and their exceptional records. 

F. Records of the dam and granddam, when commendable. 

G. Records of brothers or sisters, if striking. 

H. Records of other famous ancestors which would tend to enhance the 
value of the animal pedigreed. 

For the cow similar records are given, including first her own 
record. 

The present custom seems to require that all animals in the pedi- 
gree up to the fourth generation have some citation to records which 
would indicate their merit. The hardest pedigree to make attrac- 
tive is the one in which the ancestors have few available records. 

41 



42 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

Here is where the able salesman makes his money. Fill in two of 
the pedigrees with the information to show the breeding worth of 
the animal pedigreed. It is suggested that the first of these pedi- 
grees be for one of the Advanced Registry animals and the other 
for one of the random sample animals. Both of the pedigrees 
should be presented in sales catalog style. Chapters IX to XXIV 
of M. S. furnish information by which to evaluate the significance 
of different sorts of ancestors' records in predicting the milk yield 
or butter-fat percentage of a cow. 

REFERENCES 

Sales catalogues of good companies furnish one of the best sources for models 

of how this work should be done. 

Prescott, M. S., and Prescott, W. A. 1923. The Holstein-Friesian Founda- 
tion, Holstein-Friesian World, Inc., Syracuse, N. Y., gives some exten- 
sive pedigrees of high record cows with pedigree production records. 



CHAPTER VII 

Chaeacteeistics of Pedigeees in the Diffeeent Beeeds 

inbeeeding 

The distinction between inbreeding and line breeding is so hazily 
drawn that it is futile to consider them separately. The system 
of measuring inbreeding which is presented is that of Pearl. Chapter 
IV of Dr. Raymond Pearl's book on Modes of Research in Genetics 
should be consulted for a discussion of the method of measuring 
inbreeding before the student commences his own work. 

Inbreeding is noticed in any pedigree if within that pedigree there 
are two or more ancestors which are identical. In other words the 
different ancestors of an inbred animal are less in number than if 
that animal were not inbred. A purely objective measure of in- 
breeding is, then, the ratio between the number of different ancestors 
in one generation to the total possible number of ancestors. This 
is the measure used in this work. The pedigree of Rioter's Jersey 
Lad illustrating its calculation is given on page 45. 

The animals marked with the solid circles are repeated previously 
in the pedigree. Those marked with an open circle containing a 
cross are ancestors of repeated animals. In this . pedigree, the 
repeated animals are Ida's Rioter of St. Lambert, Bachelor of St. 
Lambert, Ida of St. Lambert and Ida's Stoke Pogis. The genera- 
tions are numbered Ai, A 2 , A 3 , A 4 . The coefficient of inbreeding 
is represented by Z. There are always two ancestors in Ai, conse- 
quently there is no inbreeding or Z = 0. In the second generation, 
A 2 , there are four possible ancestors and all four are different so 
there is no inbreeding, Zi = 0. In the third generation, A 3 , Ida's 
Rioter of St. Lambert reappears, so there is inbreeding. The 
amount of this inbreeding is equal to 1, the number of repeated 
ancestors, divided by 8 the possible number of ancestors, or 
12.5 per cent of the inbreeding. In the fourth generation, there are 
5 animals repeated, namely, Bachelor of St. Lambert (twice) 

43 



44 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

Ida of St. Lambert (twice) and Ida's Stoke Pogis (once). The 
number of total possible ancestors is 16 or the inbreeding, Z 3 = 
t% or 31.25 per cent. 

The student may calculate the inbreeding found in each of his 
four pedigrees. Tabulate the inbreeding of the pedigrees for the 
whole class, tabulating each group of pedigrees separately — Ad- 
vanced Registry bulls, Advanced Registry cows, random sample 
bulls, random sample cows. The protocol for this tabulation is 
given on pages 46-49. Comparing the average per cent of inbreed- 
ing for each group, what conclusion do you draw as to the influence 
of inbreeding on the possibilities of an animal's having an Advanced 
Registry record? Read Chapter VII in M . S. Sections relating 
to inbreeding in: 

REFERENCES 

Pearl, R., Gowen, J. W., and Miner, J. R. 1919. Studies in Milk Secretion 
VII. Transmitting qualities of Jersey sires for milk yield, butter-fat 
percentage, and butter-fat, Maine Station Bulletin 281. 

Wright, Sewall. 1922. The effects of inbreeding and crossbreeding on guinea 
pigs, U. S: Department of Agriculture, bulletins 1090 and 1121. 

King, Helen D. 1918, 1919, 1921. Studies in inbreeding, Jour. Exper. Zool., 
vol. 26, pp. 1-98; vol. 27, pp. 1-37; vol. 29, pp. 134-175. 

Write a paper of 250 words giving a synopsis of the conclusions 
you draw from your studies as to the influence of inbreeding. 



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46 



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49 



CHAPTER VIII 

Characteristics of Pedigrees for the Different Breeds 

relationship 

Within any pedigree a state of relationship exists if the sire and 
dam of the animal pedigreed have common ancestors, or putting 
it another way, two individuals are related if they have common 
ancestors. The calculation of the relationship coefficients is much 
like that for inbreeding save for one particular, namely, that for 
any one generation it is possible to have only half the number of 
animals related as compared with those which are inbred. Such 
being the case the denominator of the fraction in any generation is 
half the number of animals in that generation. The coefficient of 
kinship or relationship is noted by K. 

Turning back to the pedigree of Rioter's Jersey Lad, we note that 
there are no common ancestors for the sire and dam up to the 
fourth generation. Such being the case K 2 and K z are both in 
value. In the fourth generation A 4 , Bachelor of St. L. and Ida of 
St. L. are common to both sire and dam so that the coefficient of 
relationship is 2 divided by 8 or 25 per cent. 

The student may calculate the kinship found in each of his four 
pedigrees. Tabulate the kinship coefficients for the pedigrees of 
the whole class, tabulating each group separately as was done for 
the inbreeding. See pages 51-54 for protocols. Compare the 
average per cent of relationship found in the pedigrees of the four 
groups. What conclusion do you draw as to the influence of rela- 
tionship on the recorded producing power of an animal. 

REFERENCES 

Read Chapters II and VII of M. S. for the discussion of kinship. 
Maine Station Bulletin 281, Studies in milk secretion VII. 
Pearl, Raymond. September, 1917. Studies on inbreeding VII, American 
Naturalist, vol. LI, pp. 454-559. 

Other sources of information will be suggested by these references 
which it would be well for the student to follow up. Write a short 
paper on the influence of relationship. 

50 



NO. 


NAME OF BULL 
GROUP (ADVANCED REGISTRY BULL) 


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Ki 


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51 



NO. 


NAME OF COW 

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Ki 


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52 



NO. 


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53 



NO. 


NAME OF COW 
GROUP (RANDOM SAMPLE COW r ) 


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54 



CHAPTER IX 

Chaeacteristics of Pedigrees for the Different Breeds. 
Homozygosis Resulting from Different 
Types of Matings 

The reader will recall that an individual which is homozygous 
for a large number of factors will tend to have offspring more like 
himself than will an individual which is heterozygous for a wide 
number of factors. A sire homozygous for dominant factors will, 
consequently, practically always reproduce his kind, or be prepotent. 
The degree of homozygosis of a sire or cow is consequently of con- 
siderable importance to the breeder. The degree of homozygosis 
also has a further significance, in that a method of breeding which 
rapidly increases homozygosis in each generation tends to do two 
things — lessen the vigor of the offspring as measured by weight, 
fertility, and health, and second, increase the uniformity of the 
stock and consequently the prepotency in outside crosses. 3 Wright 
has indicated the methods by which the degree of homozygosis of 
an individual may be determined. The results give the probable 
average homozygosis as a per cent based on the assumption that 
the original ancestors were themselves random bred. 

REFERENCES 

In case the reader has not already done so it would be of interest for him 
to read: 

Wright. 1921. Systems of mating 1 to o, Genetics, vol. 6, pp. 111-178. 
Wright. 1922. Coefficients of inbreeding and relationship, American Natura- 
list, vol. 56, pp. 330-338. 

As an illustration of the method, I take the pedigree of King 
Walker 40358, a Holstein-Friesian bull (see page 56). 

1 A word of comment should be added, while these effects are the average 
results of increase in homozygosis they may be avoided by careful selection 
to isolate the superior lines of the stock in each generation. This result brings 
in another agent, selection, which must be rigorously used on many characters 
to result in superior lines of homozygous stock. 

55 



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56 



CHARACTERISTICS OF PEDIGREES — HOMOZYGOSIS 



57 



In this method of calculation, the percentage of homozygosis 
under random mating is assumed to be 50 per cent. The average 
percentage of homozygosis is equal to J (1 + /o) X 100, or on a 
percentage scale of to 100 for the increase of homozygosis from 
50 to complete homozygosis, 100 per cent, the value of 

/ = #(l)n + n' + l( 1+/a ) 

where S equals summation. 

It is possible to consider f as Wright does, a coefficient of inbreed- 
ing. It is perhaps more properly the percentage increase of homo- 
zygosis brought about by the system of breeding. To increase 
homozygosis the ancestor must be common to both sire and dam. 
The n and n' are the number of generations from sire and dam re- 
spectively to the ancestor common to each. If the common an- 
cestor is inbred, its coefficient of inbreeding f must be worked out 
for his pedigree first. Otherwise the value of / is considered zero. 

The steps in the calculation of the pedigree of King Walker are 
as follows: King Walker has as common grandsire Admiral Walker. 
He also traces through the paternal grandsire and maternal grand- 
dam to Lillian Walker. All common lines tracing back from the 
sire to the common ancestor and thence forward to the dam and 
passing through no individual more than once are thus included. 
In tabular form we have f Q as given in the following protocol. 



INDIVIDUAL 


COMMON ANCESTORS OF 
SIRE AND DAM 


fa 


n 


n' 
1 

3 


(l ) n + n' +1(1+/a) 


King Walker 40358 


Admiral Walker 25755 
Lillian Walker 38944 






1 

2 


0.1250 
0.0156 








0.1406 



or the per cent of probable homozygosis J (1 + 0.1406) = 57.03. 

As another illustration, the pedigree of the Holstein-Friesian cow 
Korndyke Butter Girl Johanna 2d, 183646 may be taken (see p.58). 

This pedigree displays a fairly large amount of inbreeding'. The 
animals repeated first are Korndyke Butter Boy, Johanna 
Aaggie 2d's Lad, Manor DeKol. The animals found in the pedigree 
of the repeated animals are shown as the open circles containing the 
cross. Korndyke Butter Boy is himself inbred so that it is neces- 



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58 



CHAKACTEKISTICS OF PEDIGREES — HOMOZYGOSIS 



59 



sary to calculate his contribution to the homozygosis before cal- 
culating that of Korndyke Butter Girl Johanna 2d. Following the 
protocol we have the results shown below. 



INDIVIDUAL 


COMMON ANCESTORS OF 
SIRE AND DAM 


fa 


n 
1 


n' 
1 

1 

2 


(l)n+n'+i (1 +/ ) 


Korndyke Butter 
Boy 38496 


Manor DeKol 21226 





0.1250 


Korndyke Butter 
Girl Johanna 2d 
183646 


Korndyke Butter Boy 

38496 
Johanna Aaggie 2d's 

Lad 26941 


0.125 



1 

2 


0.1406 
0.0313 










0.1719 



The percentage of homozygosis is % (1 + 0.1719) X 100 =58.60 
per cent. 

With these illustrations before us the complete significance of this 
coefficient may be considered further. As indicated above the 
coefficient gives the percentage increase of homozygosis or conversely 
the percentage decrease in heterozygosis, when the animal pedigreed 
has its unknown ancestors random mated. Thus the coefficient 
really gives the percentage decrease in heterozygosis relative to the 
stock to which the pedigrees are traced. If the percentage of 
heterozygosis happens to be 50 per cent in the latter stock, J (1 
+ F ) X 100 gives the percentage of homozygosis in the animals 
dealt with. In general, if p' is the percentage of heterozygosis in 
this foundation stock, the percentage of heterozygosis in the animal 
Oispo = v' (1 ~~ ^o) X 100. The assumption of previous random 
mating for the fourth generation animals in any fourth generation 
pedigree is undoubtedly not correct. While the actual percentage of 
heterozygosis in any stock can hardly be estimated, it is probably 
low when all the factors for the inherited characteristics of the 
species, genus, order, and phylum are considered. Thus what is 
really calculated, a point Wright is very careful to emphasize, is 
the degree of change in the direction of homozygosis. The impor- 
tance of the coefficient Fq is not to be minimized by these considera- 
tions but rather strengthened. 

Calculate the amount of homozygosis for each of the pedigrees. 
Tabulate the results for the whole class in the four groups, Ad- 



60 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

vanced Registry bulls and cows, random sample bulls and cows. 
Protocols for these tabulations are found on pages 61-65. 

REFERENCE 

Wright's paper in 1923 on Mendelian Analysis of the Pure Breeds, II, The 
Dutchess Shorthorns, Journal Heredity, vol. XIV, pp. 405-422. 



INDI- 
VIDUAL 


COMMON ANCESTORS OF SIRE AND DAM 


fa 


n 


n' 


(!)n+n'+i (1 _L./ a ) 



















































































































































































































































































































































Gl 



NO. 


ADVANCED REGISTRY GROUP, BULLS 






Individual 


Herd book No. 






















' 






















































































































































































— 


















1 







62 





ADVANCED REGISTRY GROUP, COWS 


PERCENTAGE OF HOMOZYGOSIS 




Individual 


Herd book No. 












































































































V 

























































































































63 



NO. 


RANDOM SAMPLE GROUP, BULLS 






Individual 


Herd book No. 





































































































































































































































64 











NO. 


RANDOM SAMPLE GROUP, COWS 




Individual 


Herd book No. 










































































































































































































- 



























05 



CHAPTER X 

Characteristics of Pedigrees 

famous ancestors 

Statements like the following, make it desirable for the student 
to have an accurate acquaintance with the foundation animals in 
any breed. 

Of all the nearly eight thousand animals imported the real founda- 
tion of the aristocracy rests upon about three dozen animals. It is im- 
possible to measure exactly the contributions of the other 99 per cent of im- 
ported animals, but the preponderance of this small group in the pedigrees 

of our leading producers in both short-time and long-time tests and of our 
leading show ring winners as well, leads straight to the conclusion that it is 
prepotency of these blood lines that has been responsible for the supremacy 
of the breed. 

Each student may take the names of each ancestor in the pedi- 
grees he has just made, one ancestor for each slip. The cards found 
between manual pages 67-68 form an easy method of handling these 
data. A sample of the way one of these cards is made out is shown 
for Sir Johanna Butter Boy sire of Korndyke Butter Girl Johanna 2d. 

Herd Book No. 53405 

Name of Ancestor 

Sir Johanna Butter Boy Sex Male 

Generation First 

In pedigree of Korndyke Butter Girl Johanna 2d 183646 

The red slips are for the Advanced Registry bulls, green for the 
Advanced Registry cows, blue for the random sample bulls, and white 
for the random sample cows. In this way the different sets of 
pedigree data will not be mixed. When each student has arranged 
this data on the slips, have the slips of the whole class combined into 
four groups (Advanced Registry bulls, Advanced Registry cows, 

66 



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EFFECT OF FAMOUS ANCESTORS 67 

random sample bulls, random sample cows). Have each group 
sorted in order of the herd book number of the ancestor, tabulate 
the frequency of the appearance of the different ancestors in each 
group ; arrange in order of the frequency of appearance. Pages 68-72 
give form tables to summarize most frequent ancestors. What do 
you conclude as to the ancestors found in the different groups of 
pedigrees? Are they different or are they the same? Do you note 
any significant difference between the four groups? Would the 
appearance of the most frequently appearing animal in the 
Advanced Registry group indicate the probable worth of any un- 
known animal? What would you consider the great families of 
the breed? 

After reading the following references write a short paper on this 
subject emphasizing especially its possible importance to produc- 
tion. Define family and write of interesting facts connected with 
each for the breeds you have studied. Critically review the data 
given in these references. 

REFERENCES 

M. S., chapters II and VII. 

Hunt, R. E. 1921. Who's who among Holstein-Friesian sires, Va. Agr. Col. 
Ext. Bui. 66, pp. 14. 

Hoven, J. M. 1916. Finding the prepotent sire, Jour. Heredity, vol. 7, pp. 
173-178. 

Prescott, M. L., and W. A. 1923. Holstein-Friesian Foundations, Holstein- 
Friesian World, Inc., Syracuse, New York. 

Maine Station Bui., 281, 300, and 301. 



Frequency of Appearances of Different Ancestors in Advanced Registry 

Bull Groups 



BULLS 


NUMBER OF APPEARANCES IN GIVEN .GENERATION 


NUMBER OF ANCESTOR 


First 


Second 


Third 


Fourth 


Total 






























































































































































COWS 





























































































































































68 



Frequency of Appearance of Different Ancestors in Advanced Registry 

Cows Groups 



BULLS 


NUMBER OF APPEARANCES IN GIVEN GENERATION 


NUMBER OF ANCESTOR 


First 


Second 


Third 


Fourth 


Total 






























































































































































COWS 





























































































































































Frequency of Appearances of Different Ancestors in Random Sample 

Bulls Group 



BULLS 


NUMBER OF APPEARANCES IN GIVEN GENERATION 


NUMBER OF ANCESTOR 


First 


Second 


Third 


Fourth 


Total 






























































































































































COWS 





























































































































































70 



Frequency of Appearances of Different Ancestors in Random Sample 

Cows Group 



BULL3 


XL' MB BR OF APPEARANCES I X GIVEN GENERATION 




First 


Second 


Third 


I ourth 


Total 






























































































































































COWS 





























































































































































Summary Sheet for Frequency of Appearances of Different Ancestors in 
Different Pedigree Groups. Animals Arranged in Order of the Total 
Number of Appearances, the Highest Coming First. 





NAME 


NUMBER OF APPEARANCES IN DIFFERENT GROUPS 


BULLS NUMBER 


Advanced Registry- 
group 


Random Sample 
group 


Total 




Bulls 


Cows 


Bulls 


Cows 












































































































































































COWS 





































































































































































































72 



CHAPTER XI 
Conformation in Relation to Milk Yield 

This method of estimating the probable milk yield of a cow is of 
the rough and ready type. It is always available to the purchasers 
where milk records are not. Furthermore conformation gives an 
estimate of other qualities valuable in the cow besides the m ilk- 
yield itself, as for instance, present condition of the udder, type of 
cow in relation to gestation, etc. The study of conformation in 
relation to milk yield may be approached in the laboratory as 
follows — the class is supposed to have had a course in stock judging 
or its equivalent. The following information on the breed of animals 
they are studying should be given the students : the lowest, average, 
and the highest yearly milk yields of the cows in the breed as at- 
tained in the college barn. Place all of the animals now in the herd, 
estimating the probable yearly milk yield of each. After returning 
from the barn to the class room the actual yearly production of 
each cow should be procured. A three column protocol furnishing 
the necessary space is given on page 75. 

To bring out the facts of these data they may be arranged as 
follows. Arrange the student's estimate of yearly production in 
order from lowest to highest. Divide the whole data into five 
groups with equal numbers of cows. Calculate the average actual 
milk yield for the cows of each group. Plot these averages on 
coordinate paper on page 76 as shown in the protocol below. 





6000 



If line A, formed by connecting the five points,hasa generaltrend 
upward as the student's estimate of production increases, it shows 

73 



74 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

the student that he can judge cattle and pick out the better milkers. 
If it descends, it shows the student that he chooses the poorer milkers 
for the best and vice versa. 

Note: The method suggested is of course a rather crude test of 
this subject. It will, however, bring out the problem and set any 
student thinking about it. The correlation method can be sub- 
stituted where it is desired to do it. 

The student should write a short paper discussing results and 
present day significance of cattle judging especially in regard to 
practical dairying, using the following references to the history. 

REFERENCES 

M.S., Chapter III. 

Gowen, John W. 1920. Conformation and its relation to milk producing 

capacity in Jersey cattle, Jour. Dairy Science, vol. Ill, pp. 1-32. 
Gowen, John W. 1921. Conformation and its relation to milk producing 

capacity in Jersey cattle. II. The personal equation of the cattle judge, 
* vol. IV, pp. 359-374. 
Aldrich, A. M., and Dana, J. W. 1916. The relation of the milk veins system 

to production, Bui. 202 Vermont Agr. Expt. Sta., pp. 1-24. 
Graves, R. R. 1916. An experiment with milk veins, Hoards' Dairyman, 

III, pp. 687 and 717. 
Col. Le Couteur. 1845, 1851. Contribution to this subject in Jersey cattle 

is given in Jour. Royal Agr. Society of England, vol. V and vol. XII, 

part 2. These two papers are of much historical interest. 



Conformation in Relation to Milk Yield 

Breed Studied 

Range of Yearly Milk Yield 



NAME OF COW 


STODENT8 ESTIMATE OF 
Yi.AKI.V PRODI 1 1 [01 


A' 1 1 W. MILE -i [ELD 
































































































































































75 




76 



CHAPTER XII 
Age of the Cow in Relation to Milk Yield 

The collection of data for this subject requires so much effort 
that the student must, practically speaking, take the scatter table 
of others for granted. For illustrative purposes, I take the tables 
for the relation of 365-day Guernsey milk yield with age. This is 
the ordinary correlation table used to show the relation of one 
variable to another (see page 78). 

The way in which such a table is made is as follows : Cards show- 
ing these records are first sorted into age groups of six months, be- 
ginning at one year and six months. These groups represent the 
frequency distribution shown under "Total" at the right. They 
are then sorted for the milk yield groups as shown above the table. 
The frequency distribution for each age is consequently the vari- 
ation of milk yield for each six months of age. 

If milk yield is related to age, the mean milk yields would be 
expected to rise or fall in some definite manner with increase in age. 
To get the mean milk yields for the age groups we adopt the method 
of arbitrary origins and call each class an increase of unity over the 
preceding class. The top line marked X shows these classes. The 
S(x) (summation x) of each row is found by multiplying the number 
in the row by the class unit in X and adding. Thus for the first 
row: 

(7X1) + (44 X 2) + (69 X 3) + (52 X 4) + (42 X 5) + (17 X 6) + (9 X 7) 
+ (3 X 8) + (1 X 9) = 918 

The mean milk yield of the first row may be obtained from this 
data by the following method: 

918 s(x) n „ nnn „ 

= = 3.762295 

244 n 

or in other words the mean milk yield of the row is 3.762295 units 
away from our arbitrary origin. Now each unit is equal to L000 

77 



MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 









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AGE OF COW IN RELATION TO MILK YIELD 



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80 



MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 



pounds of milk as seen from the method in which the table is grouped. 
The value of X is assumed to equal the mid-point of that particular 
group so that X = 1 is really equal to 4500 pounds of milk. The 
zero origin is consequently equal to 4500 — (1 ; the value of X, 
multiplied by 1000, the class interval) or 3500. Then the mean of 
the first group is equal to 

3500 + 3.762295 X 1000 = 7262.3 pounds of milk 

In like manner the other average milk yields for the different 
ages may be obtained. These are shown in the following table. 



AGE AT TEST 



year 6 months to 1 year 11 months 
years months to 2 years 5 months 
years 6 months to 2 years 11 months 
years months to 3 years 5 months 
years 6 months to 3 years 11 months 
years months to 4 years 5 months 
years 6 months to 4 years 11 months 
years months to 5 years 5 months 
years 6 months to 5 years 11 months 
years months to 6 years 5 months 
years 6 months to 6 years 11 months 
years months to 7 years 5 months 
years 6 months to 7 years 11 months 
years months to 8 years 5 months 
years 6 months to 8 years 11 months, 
years months to 9 years 5 months, 
years 6 months to 9 years 11 months 
years months to 10 years 5 months, 
years 6 months to 10 years 11 months, 
years months to 11 years 5 months, 
years 6 months to 11 years 11 months, 
years months to 12 years 5 months, 
years 6 months to 12 years 11 months, 
years months to 13 years 5 months, 
years 6 months and above 



MEAN- 
MILK YIELD 



,262 
,042 
,453 
,710 
,284 
,637 
,975 
,390 
,321 
,598 
,450 
,812 
,709 
,887 
,910 
,829 
,766 
,739 
,636 
,471 
,923 
,677 
,250 
,571 
441 



(The different members of the class may check the results for 
the different rows.) The student by plotting these means shows 
that there is a relation between milk yield and age of the cow. To 
place the milk yields of cows on comparable age basis we might use 



AGE OF COW IN RELATION TO MILK YIELD 



1 



the relation of these raw average milk yields at one age to those; of 
a constant age, say 8 years. However, it is better to determine the 
curve for the data thus eliminating the irregularities due to lack of 
numbers. Such a curve may be fitted to these data by the method 
of least squares. When thus fitted the curve is found to be: 

Mean milk yield = 6372.6 + 827.9a - 51.8a 2 + 1394.6 log (a - 1.25) 

where the age (a) is in years and the origin is zero years. 

The student may calculate the points in this curve for each six 
months of age beginning with 1 year 9 months and plot them on 
his plot of the raw average milk yield. The completed figure on 
page 85 when plotted from data of page 86 will be like that shown 
below. 




3:9 



5.<> 79 99 11-9 13V 

A(jE 

From these data the correction factors of milk yield for age may 
be determined. These factors are taken as the ratio of the milk 
yield at 8 years divided by the milk yield at the age from which 
correction is made. Thus the correction factor for the milk yields 
of cows at 2 years to the eight year standard would be 



10837 2 
7647.0 



or 1.41; 



* This method of determining the correct ton factors lor age and milk yield 
is the one customarily employed with results which arc satisfactory for prac- 
tical purposes. A slightly more exact method takes into account not only 
the changes in the mean milk yields with age bul also the changes in the 



q504- 



82 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

That is if a cow has a record of 8000 pounds as a two-year-old 
and we wish to get her probable record at 8 years we multiply 
8000 X 1.417 or the probable record is 11,337 pounds. 

The class should determine these correction factors for different 
ages entering their results on pages 8-87 and make a table similar to 
that given in Maine Station Bulletin 311, page 17. 

The student will find a good deal of interest in making comparisons 
like these. Murne Cowan, 19797, has three records for Advanced 
Registry. Each record is for the year period. The first record 
is for 16,729 pounds of milk at 6 years 3 months of age. The second 
record is for 24,008 pounds of milk at 8 years 9 months of age. The 
third record is for 17,384 pounds of milk at 11 years 1 month of 
age. If we examine table 4 in Maine Station Bulletin 311 we note 
that in the six year age row, at 17,000 pounds of milk (column 15) 
the expected production of this cow at 8 years would be 17,682 
pounds instead of the 24,008 pounds she actually produced. In 
other words, her production was 6326 pounds more than was ex- 
pected'. Before considering this difference, let us examine the 
third record. Figure 3 of this bulletin shows that, on the average, 
the cows at 11 years 1 month produce slightly more milk than those 
at 6 years 3 months. The 6 year 3 month record of Murne Cowan 
would consequently predict a record of about 17,000 pounds at 
11 years 1 month old or a record closely similar to that actually 
made. This illustration brings out a true biological fact concern- 
ing milk records. The phenomenal record is made under such pres- 
sure that the cow, herself, and every condition surrounding her 
must be most favorable. Furthermore, the most favorable con- 
ditions for one cow may not be favorable to another so that it is 
extremely hard to duplicate the conditions which are favorable. 
The high records tend to be made when the cows are in the pink 

variation of milk yield with age. The formula which determines this rela- 
tion is milk yield at standard age (F s ) equals milk yield at x age (F x ) multi- 
plied by standard deviation of the milk yield at standard age (o- s ) divided 
by standard deviation at x age (<r x ), minus mean milk yield at x age (Yx) 
multiplied by standard deviation at standard age (cr s ) divided by standard 
deviation at x age (<t x ), plus average milk yield at standard age (F s ) or 

v _ ^ x °" s Fx q~s . — 

' 6 — — T Is 

fy <Xx 

where the overlined value represents mean values. 



AGE OF COW IN RELATION TO MILK YIELD 83 

of condition for making high records, the low records when the 
conditions are unfavorable. There is a tendency for high and low- 
record cows when retested to have their records regress toward the 
average of the breed, due to the change in conditions surrounding 
the cow. The correction on the basis of the mean curve lake- do 
cognizance of the environmental conditions but assumes that the 
conditions remain as they were in the first test. The method of 
correlations as given elsewhere takes the changing conditions into 
account. Both methods have their uses. 

In view of these facts, as illustrated by the records of Murne 
Cowan, what is the probable error within the limits of which we 
might expect the record of any one cow? The standard deviation 
of milk yield offers a means of determining this range. The stand- 
ard deviation of the milk yields of 8-year-old cows is 2335 or tha 
approximate probable error is 0.67449 X 2335 or 1575, or for any 
determination found in table 4 of Bulletin 311 of the Maine Station 
it is about an even chance that the actual milk yield of the cow will 
be within 1600 pounds either side of the figure shown. Thus for 
Murne Cowan's 6-year-old milk yield the probable 8-year production 
was 17,682 ± 1575 and the 11 year old milk yield predicted 17,695 
=fc 1575 as the probable 8-year-old production. In her phenomenal 
record this cow produced much over this mark. In fact, it may be 
shown that there is only one chance in over 25,000 that a cow would 
make such a record as she actually did. 

The following references should be read: 

REFERENCES 

M. S., Chapter IV. 

Pearl, Raymond, and Patterson, S. W. 1917. The change of milk flow with 
age, as determined from the seven-day records of Jersey cattle, Annual 
Report of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 2(Y2, 
pp. 145-152. 

Pearl, Raymond, and Miner, John Rice. 1919. The variation of Ayrshire 
cows in the quantity and fat content of their milk, Jour. Agricultural 
Research, vol. XVII, pp. 285-322. 

Pearl, Raymond, Gowen, John W., and Miner, John Rice. 1919. Studies 
in milk secretion. VII. Transmitting qualities of Jersey sins for milk 
yield, butter-fat percentage, Annual report of the Maine Agricultural 
Experiment Station for 1919, Bulletin 281, pp. S9-2G4. 

Gowen, John W. 1920. Studies in milk secretion VIII. On the infim 
age on milk yield and butter-fat percentage, as determined from tin 



84 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

day records of Holstein-Friesian cattle, Annual Report of the Maine 
Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 293, pp. 185-196. 

Gowen, John W. 1923. Studies in milk secretion XIV. The effect of age 
on the milk yields and butter-fat percentages of Guernsey Advanced 
Registry cattle, Annual Report of the Maine Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Bulletin 311, pp. 9-20. 

Brody, Samuel, Ragsdale, Arthur C, and Turner, Charles W. 1923. 
The rate of growth of the dairy cow. IV. Growth and senescence as 
measured by the rise and fall of milk secretion with age, Jour. Gen. 
Physiology, vol. VI, pp. 31-40. 




N.-> 



Correction Factors for Milk Yield to a Standard Age 





WEAN MILK 
YIELD 


MULTIPLICATION FAOA 

TORS TO CORRECT TO V. 8-YEAR MILK YIELD 




8 YEARS AS STAND- ( MILK YIELD OF AGE FOK WHICH CORRECTION IS TO BE MADE 
ARD AGE / 





































































































































































86 



Milk Yields of Guernsey Advanced Registry Cows Corrected to an 8-Year 

Basis 





MILK YIELD AT GIVEN AGE 




AGE IN 


























YEARS 


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13000 


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9 





MILK YIELD AT 8 YKAkS 



S7 



CHAPTER XIII 
Age of the Cow in Relation to the Butter-fat Percentage 

This subject is much less complex than the same relations for 
milk yield. The relation is, in general, a linear one with a difference 
in the effect of age on the butter-fat percentage of the different breeds. 
The student will find it advantageous to calculate a table show- 
ing the raw data for the influence of age on the butter-fat percentage. 
These data may be found in the same references as those for the 
relation of age to milk yield. 

The method of calculation necessary to determine this relation of 
age to butter-fat percentage may be illustrated by the table on 
milk yield on page 78 although the linear equation is not suited 
to describe the relation of milk yield to age. Summation X 
(S(X)) for each row of the table is obtained as previously described, 
S(X) of the "Total" row is also calculated (37 X 1) + (389 X 2) 

+ (1125 X 3) (1 X 17) + (1 X 21) = 61258. The sum of the 

right hand column, S(X) for each row is also equal to 61258 which 
checks the work thus far calculated. The figure 61258 is called 
S(X) of the table. The next constant needed is S(X 2 ). This is 
obtained by multiplying the totals of the lower row by the squares 
of the X row. Thus (37 X 1) + (389 X 4) + (1125 X 9) + 

(1800 X 16) + (2055 X 25) (IX 289) + (1 X 441) = 406680 

= summation X 2 , written S(X 2 ). Similar values are now obtained 
for Y. Summation Y is equal to the totals of the right side of the 
table times the distance from the origin shown in column F. Thus 
S(Y) is equal to 

(244 X 1) + (2436 X 2) + (1287 X 3) + (1020 X 4) .... (1 X 31) + (1 X 33) = 

65190 

Summation Y 2 , (S(Y 2 )), is equal to the total column times the 
squares of the distance from the origin or 

(244 X 1) + (2436 X 4) + (1287 X 9) + (1020 X 16) .... (1 X 961) + (1 X 1089) 

= 607450 



AGE OF COW AND BUTTER-FAT PERCENTAGE 89 

The last constant needed is summation (XY). This is deter- 
mined by multiplying the summation of each row, S(X) for each 
row, by the value of Y, thus: 

(918 X 1) + (11063 X 2) + (6374 X 3) + (5314 X 4) .... (5 X 31) + (4 X 33) = 

418940 

From these data it is now possible to obtain the correlation of 
age with milk yield. This coefficient is obtained as follows. Each 
of the constants are divided through by the total number of indi- 
viduals in the table, 10644. 



61258 
10644 


= 5.755167 


S(X) 
n 


406680 
10644 " 


= 38.207441 


S(X 2 ) 
n 


65190 
10644 


= 6.124577 


_S(Y) 
n 


607450 
10644 " 


= 57.069710 


8(Y*) 

n 


418940 


= 39.359263 


S(XY) 



10644 

To transfer our data to the true mean of the table, the following 
calculations are made. 

38.207441 - (5.755167) 2 = 5.085494 = a~* 
57.069710 - (6.124577) 2 = 19.559267 = <r y 2 
39.359263 - (5.755167 X 6.124577) = 4.111300 

In symbols this relation is 

S(X>) /S(X) 



n \ n 

S(Y*) : . (S(Y)\* _ 
n \ n J 



2 

= ax 2 



ay' 



S(XY) S(X) S(Y) fQ /™ I+1 # 

X = value ot S(XYJ around the true mean. 

n n n 

The value of c x is equal to the square root of cr' 2 x or yjb. 085494 = 2.255104 



90 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

The value of a y is equal to the square root of a 2 y or ->Jl9 .559267 = 4.422586 
The value of the correlation coefficient is equal to 

S(XY) _ S(X) S(Y) 

4.111300 n „ nnnn .. , , n n n 

or 0.412227 or in symbols 



2.255104X4.422586 ax X ay 

The class interval, between 1 and 2 for instance of the X is equal 
to 1000 pounds of milk. The origin, on the A" scale, is equal to 
3500 pounds of milk. In the same way the class interval for Y is 
equal to 0.5 of a year and the origin is equal to 1.25. From 
these data the mean average milk yield and age at test is found to 
be: 

5.755167 X 1000 + 3500 = 9255 pounds of milk 
6.124577 X 0.5 + 1.25 = 4.31 years of age 

The standard deviations for milk yield and age are equal to the a 
times the class interval, or : 

o-x X 1000 or 2.55104 X 1000 = 2255 pounds 
o-t X 0.5 or 4.422586 X 0.5 = 2.21 years 

There are two possible linear equations for this correlation table, 
one to give the mean milk yields when the age is known and the 
other to give the mean ages when the milk yields are given. The 
equations are equal to: 

99^£ 9955 

Mean milk yield = 9255 - 0.412 —^ 4.31 + 0.412 ^~ age, 

or mean milk yield = 7443 + 420.4 age. 

2.21 2.21 

Mean age = 4.31 - 0.412 rr — 9255 + 0.412 rr— milk yield, 
ZZoo ZZoo 

or mean age = 0.61 + 0.0004 milk yield. 
In symbols, the equations are: 

S.D. X S.D. X 

X = mean x - r XY g -^ mean Y + r XY g -p. Y 

O.JJ.y b.D.Y 

S.D. Y S.D. Y 

Y = mean Y - r XY -^ mean x + r XY a 

b.JJ.x b.JJ.x 

where S.D. is equal to the standard deviation. 



AGE OF COW AND BUTTER-FAT PERCENTAGE 91 

As noted elsewhere the linear equations are not suited to the 
description of the relation between milk yield and age. The data 
are given merely for sake of illustration. It is realized that the 
description of the method is given in the most elementary terms. 
The student will find the reading of G. U. Yule, An introduction 
to the theory of statistics, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 
Chapters VI to X, of value. 

In the student's paper on the relation between age and butter-fat 
percentage in cattle, it would be desirable to take one of the numerous 
tables for these relations to be found in the references and check over 
the calculations and form the curves. The student would do well 
to consider and discuss the question of whether or not the effect of 
age on butter-fat percentage is the same in all breeds of cattle. 

REFERENCES 
See those of Chapter XI. 



CHAPTER XIV 

Mode of Secretion of Milk in the Udder 

This subject is still in its infancy so far as it concerns exact knowl- 
edge of how milk is actually secreted. The subject is, however, 
important enough for the student of heredity of milk yield to be 
reviewed by him. For the laboratory exercise, the review of the 
different original papers on this subject as cited in Chapter V of 
M . S. by different members of the class together with discussion 
of the conclusions drawn is suggested. It would also be desirable 
to have histological sections of udder tissue taken from an animal 
which had been completely milked out and from another before 
milking had commenced on demonstration for the students' micro- 
scopical study. Note should be taken of the size and character 
of the udder cells and the possibilities of distinguishing cell de- 
struction versus any other theory, such as the secretion of the milk 
solids by the cells, to account for the formation of milk by- the 
udder. The tissue for these sections might be obtained from 
slaughter houses where milking cows were killed, as for example 
where slightly diseased tubercular cattle were killed. Care should be 
taken to have good sections. These may possibly be obtained from 
the Histology section of the Biology department of the University. 



92 



CHAPTER XV 
Permanence of Milk Yield and Butter-fat Percentage 

It would be futile to study the inheritance of milk yield or to 
make Advanced Registry records if two major easily determined 
facts were not true: First, a record on one lactation should predict 
with reasonable certainty what the record in a subsequent lactation 
will be; second, as a corollary to this, a cow's milk record of one 
lactation should occupy the same relative position among the rec- 
ords of her herd companions that it does in another lactation. 
To test the accuracy with which these results follow from a study 
of cattle records the following tabulation of data is suggested (see 
pages 95-98). 

Take the data of the college cows preferably using the lactation 
record of a definite length, for all cows having two or more lacta- 
tions. Arrange the data so that all cows have records at two years, 
three years, and four years. Take the records of the cows at two 
years and arrange them in order of milk yield. Divide the group 
into as nearly four equal parts as possible, the first part to include 
the highest producing fourth of the cows, the next group the second 
highest producing fourth of the cows, the next group the third highest 
producing fourth of the cows, and the fourth group the lowest 
producing fourth of the cows. Calculate the average production 
of each group. Without changing the four groups calculate the 
average milk yield of each group for the same cows at three years of 
age and at four years of age. Plot the line showing the average 
production of the highest group, the second highest, the third highest 
and the lowest producing cows. What conclusions do you draw? 

Do the same for the butter-fat percentage. 

Write a short paper on this subject after reading the following 
references. 



<!3 



94 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

REFERENCES 

M. S., Chapter VI. 

Gavin, William. 1913. Studies in milk records on the accuracy of estimating 
a cow's milking capacity by her first lactation yield, Jour. Agric. Science, 
vol. 5, pp. 377-391. 

Gowen, John W. 1920. Studies in milk secretion V. On the variations and 
correlations of milk secretion with age in Jersey cattle, Genetics, vol. 5, 
pp. 111-188. 

Gowen, John W. 1920. Studies in milk secretion VI. On the variation and 
correlations of butter-fat percentage with age in Jersey cattle, Genetics, 
vol. 5, pp. 249-324. 

Gowen, John W. 1923. Studies in milk secretion XI. The relation between 
the butter-fat percentage of one lactation and the butter-fat percentage of 
a subsequent lactation in Guernsey Advanced Registry cattle, Jour. 
Dairy Science, vol. VI, pp. 330-346. 

Gowen, John W. 1923. Studies in milk secretion X. The relation between 
the milk yield of one lactation with the milk yield of a subsequent lacta- 
tion in Guernsey Advanced Registry cattle, Jour. Dairy Science, vol. 
VI, pp. 102-121. 

Gowen, Marie S., and Gowen, John W. 1922. Studies in milk secretion 
XIII. The relation between milk yield and butter-fat percentage of the 
7-day and 365-day tests of Holstein-Friesian Advanced Registry cattle, 
Annual Report of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station Jor 1922, 
Bui. 306, pp. 21-60. 



Permanence of Milk Yield 



NAME OF COW 
(COWS ARRANGED ACCORDING TO 2-YEAR MILK YIELD) 


2-YEAR MILK YIELD 


3-YEAH MILK YIELD 


l-V.'. \l; MII.K YIELD 
















































































































































































' 











































95 



Permanence of Butter-Fat Percentage 




name of cow 

(cows arranged in order of 2-year butter-fat 

percentage) 


2-YEAR BUTTER-FAT 
PERCENTAGE 


3-YEAR BUTTER-FAT 
PERCENTAGE 


4-YEAR BUTTER-FAT 
PERCENTAGE 



























































































































































































































96 




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03 



CHAPTER XVI 
Inheritance of Milk Yield from Dam to Daughter 

The student by this time is familiar with the herd book and 
Advanced Registries to such an extent that records may be easily 
found when wanted. The courageous student may be given the 
problem of finding his own original records for this study. He will 
need Advanced Registry record cows which have Advanced Regis- 
try record daughters. The milk yield records will have to be cor- 
rected for age by the methods previously given. With these rec- 
ords the direct comparison of the daughter's and dam's records 
may be made. This task is without much question too large for the 
limited time which may be devoted to this class. The next best 
thing is to take the records which have already been tabulated and 
have the student make the necessary calculations and deduce the 
results from them. 

The writer consequently suggests that the class take table 80 of 
M . S. (or some such table where the work of tabulating has already 
been done) and calculate from it the mean milk yields of the daugh- 
ters for each grade of milk yield of the dams in the manner given for 
exercise XII. Plot on cross section paper the average milk yields 
of the daughters for each grade of milk yield of the dam. What 
conclusions do you draw from this plot? After reading Chapters 
X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, and XVI in M. S. write a short paper 
on the inheritance of milk yield from the parents. Cross-section 
paper for this exercise is found on page 100. 



99 




:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 




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100 



, CHAPTER XVII 

Influence of the Grandparents on the Granddaughters' 

Milk Yield 

The influence of the grandparents on the milk yields or butter- 
fat percentages of the granddaughters may be tested in the same 
manner as in exercise XVI. Table 138 of M. S. would be a good one 
for the student to calculate and from which to plot the average milk 
production of the granddaughters for the granddam of a given 
grade of milk yield. The conclusions derived from the plot should 
be considered in conjunction with a study of the results given in 
Chapters XX, XXI, XXII, and XXIII of M. S. Cross-section 
paper for this exercise is found on page 102. 



101 




102 



CHAPTER XVIII 

The Inheritance of Milk and Butter-fat Percentage 

in Crosses of Animals Differing Widely in the 

Amounts of These Variables 

Each student may review critically one of the following references 
and report on it. After the reports, have a general discussion of 
the subject by the members of the class with the object of coordi- 
nating the work of the different investigations and deriving 
conclusion of general application. The object of the reviews should 
be foremost in mind, namely, how the particular work furnishes 
evidence on the problem of the inheritance of milk yield and butter- 
fat percentage and the effects of dominance, heterosis, etc. 

REFERENCES 

Castle, W. E. 1919. Inheritance of quantity and quality of milk production in 

dairy cattle, Proc. National Academy of Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 428-434. 
Lawritson, M. N., et al. 1919. Purebred sires effect herd improvement, Cir. 

8, Nebraska Agric. Exper. Station, pp. 1-15. 
Olson, T. M., and Biggar, G. C. 1922. Influence of purebred dairy sires, 

South Dakota Agric. Exper. Station Bui. 198, pp. 434-467. 
Kildee, H. H., and McCandlish, A. C. 1916. Influence of environment and 

breeding in increasing dairy production, Iowa Agric. Exper. Station 

Bui. 165, pp. 383-402. 
McCandlish, A. C, and Winters, L. M. 1920. A study of bulls, Jour. Dairy 

Science, vol. 3, pp. 529-539. 
McCandlish, A. C. 1920. Environment and breeding as factors influencing 

milk production, Jour. Heredity, vol. XI, pp. 204-215. 
McCandlish, A. C, et al. 1919. Influence of environment and breeding in 

increasing dairy production — II, Iowa Agric. Exper. Station Bui. l sS . 

pp. 65-88. 
Van Norman, H. E. 1907. Influence of pure bred sires, Report of Penn. State 

College, pp. 129-145. 
Beam, A. L. 1915. A study of the dairy herd records of Pennsylvania Experi- 
ment Station, Report Penn. State College, pp. 349-386. 
Wilson, J. H. 1917. The effect of the sire on the herd, Vermont Agric. Exper. 

Station Bui. 202, pp. 39-44. 

103 



104 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

Hayden, C. C. 1916. The influence of sires on production, Ohio Station, 

Monthly Bui., vol. 1, pp. 211-215. 
Gaines, W. L. 1923. The inheritance of fat content of milk in dairy cattle, 

Proceedings Amer. Soc. Animal Production, pp. 29-32. 
Ellinger, T. U. 1923. The variation and inheritance of milk characters, 

Proceedings Nat. Acad. Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 111-116. 
Gowen, John W. 1920. Inheritance in crosses of dairy and beef breeds of 

cattle II. On the transmission of milk yield to the first generation, 

Jour. Heredity, vol. XI, pp. 300-314. 
Gowen, John W. 1920. Inheritance in crosses of dairy and beef breeds of 

cattle. III. Transmission of butter-fat percentage of the first genera- 
tion, Jour. Heredity, vol. XI, pp. 365-376. 



CHAPTER XIX 

The Chromosome Mechanism of Heredity in Relation 
to Dairy Cattle Inheritance 

The cytology of the germ cells of cattle has been worked out by 
Wodsedalek and Masui. These papers may be read and discussed. 
Problems showing the probable distribution of the sex chromosomes 
and the proportion of chromosomes received by the offspring from 
certain of their grandparents may be worked. This information should 
then be considered from the view point of the inheritance of milk 
yield and butter-fat percentage. If it is possible to obtain slides 
of cattle test is or ovary from the Biology department of the Uni- 
versity, the student will find it interesting to study them in the 
attempt to obtain the number of chromosomes and the manner in 
which they divide. Do not get discouraged if the first slides are 
not good for the material is difficult to fix properly; obtain fresh 
material and try fixing it again. 

REFERENCES 

MasuIj Kiyoshi. 1919. The spermatogenesis of domestic mammals II. The 

spermatogenesis of cattle (Bos taurus) . Jour. Coll. Agr. Tokyo 

Imperial Univ. 3: 277-403. 
Wodsedalek, J. E. 1920. Studies on the cells of cattle with special reference 

to the spermatogenesis, oogonia, and sex-determination, Biol. Bui., 

vol. 38, pp. 290-317. 
See also M. S„ Chapter XXIX. 



105 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The following references additional to those already given furnish 
a bibliography to most of the important papers on cattle breeding and 
inheritance. These papers deal with inheritance of such of the less 
important economic characters as coat color, twinning, cataract, etc. 
A brief review of these works is found in "A Resume of Cattle Inheri- 
tance," Bibliographia Genetica, II: 287-337. 

Allen, C. L. 1922. The effect of the age of sire and dam on the quality of 
offspring in dairy cows, Jour. Heredity, 13, pp. 167-176. See also 
Holstein Friesian World, 20 (1923), No. 17, pp. 817-819, 832. 

Barrington, Amy, and Pearson, Karl. 1905. On the inheritance of coat 
color in cattle. Part I. Shorthorn crosses and pure Shorthorns, 
Biometrika, 4, pp. 427-464. 

Bateson, W., and Saunders, E. 1902. Experimental studies in the physi- 
ology of heredity, Roy. Soc. (London), Rpts. Evol. Com., Xo. 1, pp. 
3-160. 

Boyd, M. M. 1908. A short account of an experiment in crossing the American 
bison with domestic cattle, American Breeders' Assoc. Proc, 4, pp. 
324-331. 

Boyd, M. M. 1914. Crossing bison and cattle, Jour. Heredity, V, pp. 189-197. 

Brun, J. 1922. Biometrical and hereditary studies of the escutcheons of cows, 
Jahrb. Wiss. u. Prakt. Tierzucht, 15, pp. 72-124. 

Campbell, M. H. 1924. Inheritance of black and red coat colors in cattle. 
Genetics, 9, pp. 419-441. 

Castle, W. E., and Wachter, W. L. 1921. Genetics of Hereford Cattle, 
Jour. Heredity, 12, pp. 36-39. 

Cole, L. J. 1916. Twinning in cattle with special reference to tin fro martin. 
Science, N. S., 43, pp. 177-178. 

Cole, L. J. 1919. A defect of hair and teeth in cattle, probably hereditary, 
Jour. Heredity, 10, pp. 303-306. 

Cole, L. J. 1920. Inheritance of milk and meat production in cattle, \\ is. 
Sta. Bull., 319, pp. 53, 54. 

Van Damme, C. 1908. Inheritance of coat color in the cattle of East Flan- 
ders, Rev. Gen. Agron. n. Ser., 3, pp. 363 365. 

Detlefsen, J. A. 1920. .4 herd of albino cattle. Jour. Heredity, 11. pp. 378- 
379. 

Detlefsen, J. A., and Yapp, W. \Y. 1920. The inheritance of congenital 
cataract in cattle, Amer. Nat., 5 1 : 277 280. 

107 



108 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

Duck, Russel W. 1923. Colors of Shorthorn cattle, Jour. Heredity 14: 65-75. 

Dunn, L. C, Webb, H. F., and Schneider, M. 1923. The inheritance 
of spotting in Holstein-Friesian cattle, Jour. Heredity 14: 229-240. 

Fogle, P. E. 1910. Results from breeding grade Shorthorns to Hereford bull, 
Amer. Breeders' Assoc. Proc., 6, pp. 373-375. 

Fogle, P. E. 1912. Transmission of color and color markings in Hereford- 
Shorthorn crosses, Amer. Breeders' Jour., 3-4, pp. 201-204. 

Funkquist, H. 1920. The inheritance of muzzle color in the cattle breed of 
Stjernsund, Hereditas, 1, pp. 343-363. 

Funkquist, H., and Boman, Nils. 1923. Vererbung u Weisser Abzeichem" 
bei Rindern, Hereditas 4: 65-80. 

Goodnight, C. 1914. My experience with bison hybrids, Jour. Heredity, 
5, pp. 197-199. 

Gowen, John W. 1918. Studies in inheritance of certain characters of 
crosses between dairy and beef breeds of cattle, Jour. Agr. Research, 
XV, pp. 1-57. 

Gowen; John W. 1918. Inheritance studies of certain color and horn charac- 
ters in first generation crosses of dairy and beef breeds, Maine Agr. 
Expt. Station Annual Report' for 1918. Bulletin 272, pp. 129-148. 

Gowen, John W. 1918. Report of progress on animal husbandry investiga- 
tions in 1917. Annual Report of the Maine Agr. Expt. Station for 

1918, Bulletin 274, pp. 205-228. 

Gowen, John W. 1919. Studies on milk secretion. IV. On the variation 
and mode of secretion of milk solids, Jour. Agr. Research XVI, pp. 
79-102. 

Gowen, John W. 1919. Report of progress on animal husbandry investiga- 
tions in 1919. Annual Report of the Maine Agr. Expt. Station for 

1919, Bulletin 283, pp. 249-284. 

Gowen, John W. 1920. Studies in milk secretion. VII. On the variations 
and correlations of butter-fat percentage with age in Jersey cattle, 
Genetics 5: 249-324. 

Gowen, John W. 1921. Report of progress on animal husbandry investiga- 
tions in 1920. Annual Report of the Maine Agr. Expt. Station for 
1921, Bulletin 299, pp. 85-120. 

Gowen, John W. 1922. Identical twins in cattle? Biol. Bull. XLI, pp. 1-6. 

Gowen, John W. 1923. Studies on conformation in relation to milk produc- 
ing capacity in cattle. III. Conformation and milk yield in the light 
of the personal equation of the dairy cattle judge, Annual Report Maine 
Agr. Expt. Station for 1923, Bulletin 314, pp. 69-96. 

Gowen, John W. 1924. Intrauterine development of the bovine fetus in rela- 
tion to milk yield in Guernsey cattle, Journal Dairy Science, 7: 311-317. 

Gowen, John W. 1924. Inheritance of milk production, Sci. Agr., IV, pp. 
365-380. 

Gowen, John W. 1924. The application of the science of genetics to the 
farmers' problems, Sci. Agr., V., pp. 1-12. 

Gowen, John W., and Covell, Mildred R. 1921. Studies in milk secre- 
tion. IX. On the performance of the progeny of Holstein-Friesian 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 109 

sires, Annual Report of the Maine Agr. Expt. Station for 1921, Bull. 

300, pp. 121-252. 
Gowen, John W., and Covell, Mildred R. 1921. Studies in milk secre- 
tion. XII. Transmitting qualities of Holstein-Friesian sires for 

milk yield, butter-fat percentage, and butter-fat. Annual Report of 

the Maine Agr. Expt. Station for 1921, Bull. 301, 253-308. 
Hammond, J. 1920. On the relative growth and development of various breeds 

and crosses of cattle, Jour. Agric. Sci., 10: 233-289. 
Hayden, C. C. 1922. A case of twinning in dairy cattle, Ohio Sta. Mo. Bui. 

7, No. 3-4, pp. 54-57. 
Hayden, C. C. 1922. A case of twinning in dairy cattle, Jour. Heredity, 

13: 22-24. 
Hays, F. A. 1919. Inbreeding animals, Delaware Agric. Expt. Station 

Bull., 123, pp. 1-49. 
Hesse, G. 1913. Inbreeding and heredity studies with cattle of the West 

Prussian Herd book, Arb. Deut. Gesell. Ztichtungsk., No. 18, pp. 

VI + 215. 
Hills, F. B., and Boland, E. N. 1913. Segregation of fat factors in milk 

production, Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., 20, pp. 195-198. 
Hooper, J. J. 1919. Inheritance of Jersey colors, Jour. Dairy Sci., 2: 290-292. 
Hooper, J. J. 1920. A study of inheritance of coat colors in Jersey cattle, 

Science 52: 43. July 9. 

Color of crossbred calves, Jour. Heredity, 12: p. 480. 
Studies of dairy cattle, Kentucky Sta. Bui., 234, pp. 



Hooper, J. J. 


1921 


Hooper, J. J. 


1921 




91-161. 




Jones, 


Sarah V. H, 



and Rouse, James E. 1920. The relation of age of 

dam to observed fecundity in domesticated animals. I. Multiple 

birth in cattle and sheep, Jour. Dairy Sci., 3: 260-290. 
Kirchner, W. 1901. Influence of heredity upon the percentage of butter-fat 

in milk, Mitt. Landw. Inst. Univ. Leipzig, No. 2, pp. 129-139. 
Kuiper, K. 1921. Color inheritance in cattle, Jour. Heredity, 12: 102-109. 
Laughlin, H. H. 1911-1912. The inheritance of color in Shorthorn cattle, 

Amer. Nat., 45, pp. 705-742, 46, pp. 5-28. 
Lillie, Frank R. 1917-1918. The freemartin, a study of the action of sex 

hormones in the foetal life of cattle, Jour. Exp. Zool., 23, 371-452, 

Abst. in Jour. Roy. Microsc. Soc, 1918, 37-38. 
Lillie, Frank R. 1923. Supplementary notes on twins in cattle, Biol. Bull., 

44, pp. 47-78. 
Lloyd-Jones, O., and Evvard J. 1916. Inheritance of color ami horns in 

blue-gray cattle, Iowa Sta. Research Bui., 30, pp. 67a 106a. 
Lush, J. L. 1922. An hereditary notch in the ears of Jersey cattle, Jour. 

Heredity, 13, pp. 8-13. 
Marshall, F. R. 1914. Holstein milk yield, Jour. Heredity, 4. pp. 437 139, 
Nabours, R. K. 1912. Evidence of alternative inheritance in the F- : genera- 

Hon from crosses of Bos indicus on B. taunts, American Nat., 46, pp. 

428-436. 



110 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

Parlour, W. 1913. Jersey-Angus cattle, Live Stock Jour. (London), 77, 
No. 2025, p. 85. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1912. A case of triplet calves, with some general considera- 
tions regarding multiple gestation in normally uniparous animals, 
Maine Agr. Expt. Station Annual Report for 1912, Bulletin 204, 
pp. 259-282. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1913. A contribution towards an analysis of the problem 
of inbreeding, American Naturalist, XLVII, pp. 577-614. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1913. Variation in the tongue color of Jersey cattle. 
Proceedings of the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, 
pp. 49-57. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1913. Constants for normal variation in the fat content 
of mixed milk, Maine Agr. Expt. Station Annual Report for 1913, 
pp. 299-305. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1914. On the results of inbreeding a mendelian popula- 
tion: a correction and extension of previous conclusions, American 
Naturalist, XLVIII, pp. 57-62. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1914. Studies on inbreeding. IV. On a general formula 
for the constitution of nth generation of a mendelian population in 
which all matings are of brother X sister, American Naturalist, XLVIII, 
pp. 491-494. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1914. Studies on inbreeding. V. Inbreeding and rela- 
tionship coefficients, American Naturalist, XLVIII, pp. 513-523. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1914. On the law relating milk flow to age in dairy cattle, 
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 
XII, pp. 18-19. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1915. Studies on inbreeding. VI. Some further con- 
siderations regarding cousin and related kinds of mating, American 
Naturalist, XLIX, pp. 570-575. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1916. Reports of progress on animal husbandry investiga- 
tions in 1915, Me. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ, 519, pp. 1-27. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1917. Report of progress on animal husbandry investiga- 
tions in 1916. Annual Report of Maine Agr. Expt. Station for 1917, 
Bulletin 261, pp. 121-144. 

Pearl, Raymond. 1918. Studies on inbreeding . VIII. A single numerical 
measure of the total amount of inbreeding, Amer. Nat., LI, pp. 636-639. 

Pearl, Raymond, and Miner, John Rice. 1913. Tables for calculating 
coefficients of inbreeding, Maine Agr. Expt. Station, Annual Report 
for 1913, pp. 191-202. 

Pearl, Raymond, and Patterson, S. W. 1917. The change of milk flow 
with age, as determined from the seven day records of Jersey cattle, 
Annual Report, Maine Agr. Expt. Station, Bulletin 262, pp. 145-152. 

Pearson, K. 1910. Note on the separate inheritance of quantity and quality 
in cow's milk, Biometrika, 7, pp. 548-550. 

Peters, J. 1913. Inheritance of milk production and its significance to cow- 
testing association, Deut Landw. Tierzucht, 17, Nos. 11, pp. 121-125; 
12, pp. 133-135; 13, pp. 145-149. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 111 

Pitt, Frances. 1920. Notes on the inheritance of colour and markings in 

pedigree Hereford cattle, Jour. Genetics, 9: 281-302. 
Putney, F. S. 1910. The theory of dynamic heredity in the light of data 

gathered from the dairy herd of the Missouri Agricultural College, 

Amer. Breeders Assoc. Proc, 6, pp. 310-317. 
Richardson. 1914. Heredity of color in cattle, Deut. Landw. Tierzucht, 18, 

No. 6, pp. 61-65. 
Rietz, H. L. 1909. On inheritance in the production of butter-fat, Biome- 

trika, 7, pp. 106-126. 
Roberts, E. 1921. Polydactylism in cattle, Jour. Heredity, 12, pp. 84-86. 
Smith, A. D. B. 1925. Color inheritance in Shorthorn cattle, Jour. Heredity, 

16, pp.. 73-84. 
Spillman, W. J. 1905. Mendel's law in relation to animal breeding, American 

Breeders Assoc. Proc, 1, pp. 171-177. 
Spillman, W. J. 1913. Inheritance of the poll character in cattle, Annual 

Report Amer. Polled Jersey Cattle Co., pp. 8. 
Stevens, H. D. E. 1913. Jersey-Angus cattle, Live Stock Jour. (London) 

77, No. 2025, p. 132. 
Storer, J. The wild white cattle of Great Britain, Lond., pp. 234. 
Tandler, Julius, and Keller, Karl. Uber das Verhalten des Chorions bei 

verschiedengeschlechtlicher Z willing sgraviditdt des Rindes und uber 

die Morphologie des Genitales der Weiblichen Tiere welche einer sol- 

chen Graviditdtentstammen, Deutsche Tierarzt. Wochenschrift, Jahrg. 

'19. 
Templeton, G. S. 1923. Unusual color inheritance, Jour. Heredity, 14: 

39-40. 
Uhlman, E. 1914. The inheritance of twin calving in cattle, Deut. Landw. 

Tierzucht, 18, No. 14, pp. 163-164. 
Watson, J. A. S. 1919. Problems of animal breeding, Scottish Jour. Agric, 

2: 449-456. 
Watson, J. A. S. 1921. A mendelian experiment with Aberdeen-Angus and 

West Highland cattle, Jour. Genetics, 11, pp. 59-67. 
Wentworth, E. N. 1912. Concerning li blue-gray" cattle, Amer. Breeders 

Mag. 5, No. 2, pp. 9, 10. 
Wentworth, E. N. 1913. Color in Shorthorn Cattle, Amer. Breeders Mag. 

4, pp. No. 202-208. 
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Agr. Jour. Agr. Research, 7, pp. 141-147. 
Wilson, J. 1908. Mendelian characters among Shorthorn cattle, Sci. Proc. 

Roy. Dublin Soc, n. ser., 11, No. 28, pp. 317-324. 
Wilson, J. 1909. The colors of Highland cattle, Sci. Proc Roy. Dublin 

Soc, n. ser., 12, pp. 66-76. 
Wilson, J. 1910. The separate inheritance of quality and quantity if 

milk, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc, n. ser., 12, pp. 170 17'.». 
Wilson, J. 1911. The inheritance of mill: yield in cattle, Sci. Proc. Roy. 

Dublin Soc, n. ser., 13, pp. 89 L13. 



112 MANUAL OF DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING 

Wodsedalek, J. E. 1918. Cytological studies of the reproductive cells of 
cattle, Idaho Sta. Rpt., 1918, p. 34. 

Woodward, T. E. 1916. Is the ability to produce milk fat transmitted by 
the dam or by the siref, Hoard's Dairyman, 51, p. 146. 

Wriedt, C. 1919. The brindle color in cattle in relation to red, Jour. 
Genetics, 9, p. 83. 

Wriedt, C. 1924. Formalism in breeding of live-stock and modern research 
on heredity. Rev. Sci. and Pract. Agr. N. S. 2, pp. 325-331. 

Wriedt, C. 1925. Colorsided cattle. Jour. Heredity, 16, pp. 51-56. 

Wright, S. 1917. Color inheritance in mammals. VI. Cattle, Jour. Hered- 
ity, 8, pp. 521-527. 

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cattle, Jour. Gol. Agr. Tohoku Imp. Univ., 6, No. 7, pp. 166-170. 



INDEX 



Age in relation to butter-fat per- 
centage, 88 
Age in relation to milk yield, 77 

averages for different ages, 80 

correlation table, 78 

curve, 81 
Application for registry, 14 
Application for transfer, 18 

Butter-fat percentage 
and age, 88 

inheritance in crosses, 103 
permanence of, 93 
Breeds 
modes of recording, 12 

application for registry, 14 
application for transfer, 18 
origin and early history of, 9 
registration of, 11 
influence of, 11 
productivity, 30 

Chromosomes, 105 

Conformation in relation to milk 

yield, 73 
Correlation, 77 
calculation of, 77, 88 

Famous ancestors in pedigrees, 66 

Homoz3 r gosis in pedigrees, 55 

Inbreeding in pedigrees, 43 
Inheritance in crosses, 103 



King Hengerveld Aaggie Fayne, 

pedigree of, 34 
King Walker, pedigree of, 56 
Korndyke Butter Girl Johanna 2d, 

pedigree of, 58 

Milk 

inheritance in crosses, 103 

mode of secretion, 92 

permanence of yield, 93 

yield and age, 77 
correlation table, 78 
curve showing relation, 81 
for different ages, 80 

Pedigrees 

famous ancestors in, 66 

homozygosis in, 55 

inbreeding in, 43 

King Hengerveld Aaggie Fayne, 34 

King Walker, 56 

Korndyke Butter Girl Johanna 
2d, 58 

relationship in, 50 

Rioter's Jersey Lad, 45 

sales, 41 

tracing, 32 
Permanence of butter-fat, 93 
Permanence of milk yield, 93 

Registry, application for, 14 
Relationship in pedigrees, 50 
Rioter's Jersey Lad, pedigree of, 45 

Transfer, application for, IS 



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